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The development of domestic and international photoelectric direct reading spectrometer

Spectral originated in seventeenth Century, In 1666, physicists Newton make the dispersion of light experiment for the first time, he introduced a beam of sunshine into the dark room.

Let it through a prism, in the back of the prism from the screen, there can see red, orange, yellow, green, indigo, blue, purple seven colors of light scattered at different locations — that formed a rainbow. This phenomenon is called spectrum. This experiment is spectrum’s origin, since Newton, there has nothing get attention. Until 1802 the British chemist Wollaston discovered that the solar spectrum is not a perfect rainbow, but be separated by some black lines.

In 1814, German optics expert Fraunhofer drawn the main line to be the spectrum when he was study on the relative position of the solar spectrum spots,He drawn the main line to be the spectrum.

1826, Talbot ,Studying of sodium salt, potassium salt on an alcohol lamp spectrum said that emission spectrometry was the basement of chemical analysis.The potassium‘s red spectrum, and sodium yellow spectrum are all the element characteristic. By 1859 Kirchhoff and Bunsen designed and manufactured a perfect light splitting device in order to study the spectrum of metal, This device is the world’s first practical spectroscopy instrument, research flame, spark in a variety of metal line, thereby establishing the spectroscopic analysis of the preliminary foundation.

From 1860 to 1907, alkali metal element rubidium Cs was discovering by the discharge of flame and spark. In 1861, discovery of element rubidium and thallium Tl . In 1868 ,Discovery of indium In and helium He.

In 1869, also discovered nitrogen N . In 1875~1907, discovered gallium potassium Ga, K Tm Pr, thulium, praseodymium, Pe, samarium, yttrium oxide y, Lu etc…

In 1882, Roland invented concave grating, which is to scratch engraved directly in the concave spherical surface. Concave grating is the efficient element of optical imaging system components’ combination of a whole, it settled the difficulties that the prism insurmountable spectrometer encountered .Concave grating spectroradiometer can not only simplify the structure, but also improves its performance.

Bohr’s theory was act on the analysis of the spectral, it explained the excitation process of the spectrum, the intensity of spectral lines. the application from the absolute intensity determination of spectral lines to measure the spectrum of the relative strength, create the basis of the spectral analysis method development from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis .

That gradually makes the spectral analysis method out of the laboratory, used in the industrial sector. After 1928, due to spectral analysis is used to the industry to be an analysis method, spectral apparatus got a rapid development, on one hand it improved the stability of excitation light source, on the other hand it also improved the performance of spectral instrument. The earliest source is flame excitation spectra; then it also developed to make a simple application of arc and spark as excitation light source, In the last century 30~40, it improved to use the controlled arc and spark as excitation light source, it improved the stability of spectral analysis.

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